For more information, including course locations, please visit the my.harvard Course Search.

Sophomore Tutorial

Social Studies 10a. Introduction to Social Studies
Nicolas Prevelakis, Bonnie Talbert, and members of the Committee
Half course (fall term). Tuesday 12:45-2:45, and a weekly section TBA. 
This course offers an introduction to the foundations of modern social theory from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. Our focus will be on the rise of democratic, capitalist societies and the concomitant development of modern moral, political, and economic ideas, with special emphasis on empire, race, and inequality. Authors we will examine include among others, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith, Mary Wollstonecraft, Alexis de Tocqueville, Frederick Douglass, Charles Darwin, and Karl Marx. 

Note: This course is limited to sophomores and Social Studies concentrators. This course is a prerequisite for sophomores applying to Social Studies. Students planning to take this class must attend the first lecture to be admitted.

Social Studies 10b. Introduction to Social Studies 
Katrina Forrester, Brandon Terry, and members of the Committee
Half course (spring term). Tuesday 12:45-2:45, and a weekly section TBA. 
This class continues the introduction to the classic texts of social theory begun in Social Studies 10a through the twentieth century. Authors include Friedrich Nietzsche, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, W.E.B. Du Bois, Sigmund Freud, Simone de Beauvoir, Frantz Fanon, and Michel Foucault.

Note: This course is limited to Social Studies concentrators who have taken Social Studies 10a.

Methods Courses

Social Studies 50. Foundations of Social Science Research
Andrew Brandel
Half course (spring term). 
This course has two goals. First, to introduce students to the diversity of methods that social scientists use to answer questions about the social world. Second, to prepare thesis writers to conduct original research. We will survey both qualitative and quantitative approaches, reading a combination of methodological texts and exemplary empirical work. For their final project, students will write a research proposal that will anchor their future thesis work.

Social Studies 60. Methods Training for Social and Political Theorists
Don Tontiplaphol
Half course (spring term). 

Is social-scientific knowledge possible? How does empirical research depend on conceptual analysis? What is the relationship between normative theory and empirical reality? This course investigates different modes of theorizing and integrates them into the philosophical foundations of the social sciences. Units include “Epistemology and Social Explanation”; “Conceptual Analysis and the Human Sciences”; “Political Theory and Historiography”; “Normativity, Critique, and Political Realism.” Recommended preparation for senior-thesis research in social and political theory, including the epistemology of social science. Continuation of the methodological themes of Social Studies 10b; intended for first-term juniors and first-term seniors.

Note: This course will be lotteried.

Special Seminars

Social Studies 15. Legitimacy and Resistance in an Unjust World 
Arthur Applbaum
Half course (spring term). 

Governments claim legitimate authority to impose coercively enforceable obligations on those subject to their rule.  What conditions need to be satisfied before governments and their officials have the legitimate authority that they claim, and under what conditions do they lose it?  One might hold, along with the US Declaration of Independence, that governments derive “their just powers from the consent of the governed.”  But have we consented to be governed?  What follows if we have not?  Or one might hold that governments are legitimate if they pursue proper ends.  The US Constitution says that its purpose is to “establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity.”  This is not an unreasonable list, but how close does any government come to delivering on these commitments?  There is, after all, a great deal of injustice, violence, suffering, and violation of freedom in our world, both inflicted upon each other and—as inaction on climate change foretells—upon generations to come.  Governments often not only fail to protect us from injustice, but actively treat many of us unjustly.  Must a legitimate government be a just government?  If so, are any governments legitimate?  What forms of resistance to illegitimate rule are justified?  If governments that aren’t just nonetheless are legitimate, what forms of resistance to unjust but legitimate rule are justified?  

We will explore the question of legitimacy and resistance in the face of injustice through a series of contemporary examples, taken from countries around the world, that illuminate the underlying normative puzzles.  The first part of the course will analyze conceptions of justice and legitimacy; the second part will consider the implications of these conceptions for the design and reform of political institutions; the third part will consider justifications for various forms of unlawful dissent, from civil disobedience to militant resistance to revolution, when political institutions fail to govern justly or legitimately. 

Note: This course complements the Social Studies 10A&B sequence and can serve either as a prequel for first-year students curious about the Social Studies concentration or as an elective for any student wishing to explore philosophical questions about justice and legitimacy. 

Junior Tutorials - Fall 2022

Note: Admission is based on student preferences and a lottery system. Undergraduate non-concentrators may enroll in these tutorials if space is available.

Social Studies 98nb. Inequality and Social Mobility in America
Anya Bassett
Half course (fall term). 
Income and wealth inequality in America are at their highest levels in a century. Historically, one reason Americans have been thought to tolerate inequality is that we tend to believe that our society is a mobile one, where people can easily move from one social class to another. But in recent years, inequality and stagnant social mobility have been associated with increasing social and political distrust and unrest. In this course, we will examine the factors that have led to this historical moment, learn about how Americans experience living in an unequal society, and consider the future of equality and mobility in the United States. How should our society be shaped, and what are our own roles as members of that society?

Social Studies 98nq. Global East Asia
Nicole Newendorp
Half course (fall term).
In this course, we will consider the everyday effects of globalization on contemporary East Asia as well as topics related to cultural exchange and interaction more broadly around the globe. How do citizens of various East Asian countries interact with the global realm in everyday life? How does this interaction affect people’s hopes and dreams and create desires for social mobility and change? What kinds of social and cultural transformations have already taken place through East Asia’s engagement with the global? What additional transformations might we expect to see in coming years, not just in East Asia but in the world more generally? Ethnographic readings focus on cultural production, migration, consumption, media, and scientific knowledge as we trace the role of the global in everyday life and how anthropologists study and write about the social and cultural transformations that accompany individuals’ engagement with global processes in both East Asia and other world areas. We will examine market structures and actors that connect vastly divergent regions in particular ways; investigate how East Asia contributes to global movements of people, ideas, and goods; question how specific pathways of movement matter for the cultural interactions that result; and consider the complexities involved with documenting and studying these contemporary global processes that affect us all.

Social Studies 98pv. The Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School
Charles Clavey
Half course (fall term). 
This course examines the distinctive critical theory created by members of the Institute for Social Research—better known as the Frankfurt School—from its origins in the interwar era to the present day. Over these decades, critical theory has used tools from philosophy, psychology, and sociology to grasp the pathologies of the present and to chart a path towards emancipation in the future. We will reconstruct the Frankfurt School’s evolving theory through its connections to the most important themes of twentieth-century thought: capitalism, authoritarianism, individuality, bureaucracy, and alienation. Our goal is not only to gain a deep understanding of critical theory but also to assess its continued relevance to modern social and political thought. 

Social Studies 98td. The Theory and Practice of Democracy in the Global South
Julie Anne Weaver
Half course (fall term). 
What does the practice of democracy look like in low- and middle-income countries today? How does that practice map on to democratic ideals like representation, participation and accountability? What are Global South countries’ major democratic challenges and successes? The course will explore these questions through both theoretical and empirical social science research, with cases drawn primarily from Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Topics will include political accountability, state and institutional strength, corruption and clientelism, participatory democracy, managing diversity, and activism and civil society engagement. 

Social Studies 98te. Democracy and Education in America
Rob Willison
Half course (fall term). 
This course is organized around three crucial questions: (1) What does a truly democratic society require of its educational institutions? (2) How well do our current educational institutions—especially our K-12 schools—live up to the standard set by question 1? (3) What approaches, at the level of both pedagogy and policy, should we take to make our school system more democratic? We’ll address these questions in conversation with philosophers (like John Dewey, Paolo Freire, and Danielle Allen), cognitive psychologists (like Susan Carey), jurists (like Earl Warren and Thurgood Marshall), and social scientists (like Raj Chetty and Daniel Koretz).

Social Studies 98vg: Global Capitalism and the "Entrepreneurial Self" - NEW
Tracey Rosen
Half course (fall term).

This class takes a psychosocial approach to understanding the relationship between global capitalism and the emergence of the modern “entrepreneurial self.” It looks at how core entrepreneurial practices and values (e.g., managed risk, competition, flexibility) are taken up outside of business schools as individuals in all walks of life are increasingly compelled to treat themselves as an enterprise. For instance, at elite universities such as Harvard, there is tremendous pressure on students to align their forms of socialization with developing their marketability through the resume. How and when did the compulsion towards self-branding come to be and what are its psychological and sociological effects? How do these practices shape people’s experiences of themselves, others, and future possibilities? Does the contemporary entrepreneurial self-express itself differently in other cultures? To answer these questions, we begin with anthropological and historical examples of a variety of ways subjectivity has been constituted. We then trace the genealogy of the modern self against the backdrop of the shift from industrial capitalism to neoliberalism. We will explore the contradictory forms of liberation and domination that accompany entrepreneurial self-making as well some of the political challenges it has faced. Specific case studies will include therapy, self-help, social entrepreneurialism and identity politics, education, and volunteerism.

Social Studies 98vh: Reparations in Law and History - NEW
Gili Kliger
Half course (fall term).
Calls for the U.S. and Europe to pay reparations for slavery and colonial crimes have proliferated in recent years. While discussions of reparations today often center around slavery and empire, reparations have historically been pursued, and successfully won, in a range of circumstances. The premise of this course is that we can better understand the nature of reparations claims by considering the historical and legal record. Each week we will study a particular reparations case and try and tease out the legal, political, moral, and economic logic that undergirds that case. We will consider the historical context surrounding the case (including both the context surrounding the initial harm and the context surrounding the movement for reparations for that harm), as well as the juridical and legal apparatus through which redress was pursued. Our goal is to deepen our understanding of reparative ethics: what makes reparations distinct from other kinds of settlements? Do reparations require an exchange of money? What kinds of harms have historically generated demands for compensation from the state? Is this a settlement oriented towards the past or the future? What goals have been envisioned by those who have fought for reparations: Restitution? Reconciliation? Atonement?

Because the study of reparations sits at the intersection of law, history, political theory, and moral philosophy, this class will also be interdisciplinary in approach. We will pair primary source documents with philosophical and theoretical texts in order to help us clarify the relation between theory and practice. How do history and practice expose the limits of our theoretical frameworks? And how can our understanding of history speak back to theory? In other words, one goal of this course is to learn to read theory with attention to its applications in practice; and to see how we might read practice and primary source texts to generate theory. 


Social Studies 98vl: Rethinking the City: Modern Life in and Beyond Europe - NEW

Andrew Brandel
Half course (fall term).

Social science classics have long seen the emergence of the city as a sign of the advance of modernity. Many writers even posited a direct relationship between the habits of urban life and the modern mindset. Owing to their crucial role in the development of capitalism and colonialism, cities have been considered emblematic of the acceleration of social life, our alienation from one another, and an enforced uniformity of social mores. Many of the dominant models for understanding cities, however, take Europe’s industrial capitals as the default, and approaches them from a bird’s eye view that elides the diversity of spaces and experiences of city dwellers. Scholars writing from cities outside Europe have deeply unsettled long held, conventional assumptions about the nature of urban life and how it ought to be studied. Anthropologists, sociologists, and geographers working in European cities meanwhile have adopted approaches that take a view from the ground to show how social and politic life in the metropole is often more complex, more heterogenous, and more contentious than traditional models assumed. The modern city is no longer a single type of social unit, but a whole typology, from global cities and abandoned cities to post-socialist and postcolonial cities to divided cities and developing cities. For many, the city defines the contradictions of the contemporary world, especially its deep structural and spatial inequality. At the same time, the city can be a site of profound political, social, and cultural experimentation and subversion.


In this course, we will track how the rise of the city in social sciences historically privileged a view from/of Europe, with a special focus on the outsized role played by capitals like Paris, London, and Berlin. We also turn to examples from cities in other parts of the world to see how they challenge those models, and help us re-imagine urban life, its challenges, and its possibilities. Finally, we look at contemporary examples of research from overlooked and marginalized spaces within European cities, to show how European itself was never so homogenous as once imagined. Throughout, we will use this opportunity to simultaneously explore different ways scholars think about the city as a research site. For their research projects for this course, students will choose locations in urban areas near Harvard within which to conduct a semester-long project. Students will then have opportunity to try out some of the different methods we discuss to see how each works in their site.


Social Studies 98vp: Mass Incarceration in Comparative and Historical Perspective - NEW

Adaner Usmani
Half course (fall term).

Today, all states around the world employ police and prisons to manage behavior that they call criminal. This is a characteristically modern innovation, perhaps even one of the signatures of modernity itself. Yet it is also something that modern states do in vastly different ways. In recent years, scholars have written extensively about the exceptional nature of the American penal state. They have noted, among other things, the extraordinary numbers of Americans behind bars and the frightening regularity of police violence. This class will canvass the historical and contemporary literature on both the origins of the penal state and the nature of American penal exceptionalism. In the first half of the class we will ask how and why prisons and police grew and spread over the last 200 years. In the second part of the class we will ask how and why America looks so different from other countries, rich and poor. The class emerges from a collaborative research project on the history of punishment. Students will have access to an original comparative and historical dataset on prisoners, police, penal spending, violence and other criminal justice statistics. The course will thus also explore methods to combine quantitative tools with comparative and historical analysis.


Social Studies 98vr: Race, Caste, and Indigeneity in a Democratic Age - NEW

Vatsal Naresh
Half course (fall term).

How do some groups acquire the label ‘minority’? What prevents different oppressed groups from collaborating in the pursuit of political power? Why do identities linger when they mark and connote deprivation, oppression, and violence? How do different forms of difference figure in hierarchical relationships to each other and preponderant groups and political institutions? How do oppressed groups innovate in resisting oppression and creating alternative political projects? We will explore three interconnected forms of social difference, race, caste, and indigeneity in democratic societies like the United States and India by studying the formation of identities before and during democratic rule, and the interaction of groups and institutions of political power. We will read texts in social theory and the contemporary social sciences. This Junior tutorial will empower students to analyze race, caste, and indigeneity comparatively, in historically specific contexts, as well as the underlying abstract concepts.


Social Studies 98vw: To Remake the World? Revolutionaries, Regimes, and Paradoxes of Power - NEW

William Whitham
Half course (fall term).

“Who says organization, says oligarchy,” wrote Robert Michels in 1915. In his view, collective revolutionary endeavors tend to empower a small few and disappoint true believers. Was he right—and why? Drawing on political theory, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, this course examines major attempts to remake polities and societies in modern global history, focusing on Eurasia. We will read classic theories of elite rule, crowds, hegemony, and subalternity, then consider case studies about communism, decolonization, liberal democracy, and decentralized social movements. Rather than idealize resistance or theorize liberation, students will explore how the critics and opponents of power may, too, be its agents and subjects—and what, if anything, can or should be done about this.

Junior Tutorials - Spring 2023

Note: Admission is based on student preferences and a lottery system. Undergraduate non-concentrators may enroll in these tutorials if space is available.

Social Studies 98cl. Law and American Society

Terry Aladjem
Half course (spring term).

At a time when the rule of law is imperiled, our democracy and equal rights of every kind under assault by multiple forces, the importance of understanding our constitutional system of rights and laws as essential to the fabric of the nation cannot be overstated. The course will examine law as a vehicle of political conflict and a defining force in American society in four dimensions: 1.) as it establishes individual rights, liberties, and the limits of toleration; 2.) as it attempts to resolve differences among competing constituencies; 3.) as it sets out terms of punishment and social control having effects on race and class, and 4.) as a source of informing images and ideological meaning. We will examine these themes with close attention to their historical roots and their constitutional and theoretical origins, to their manifestations in our current political debates. We will take up issues at the level of jurisprudence or political theory, but also as they arise in public controversies, or are settled in legal cases by the courts—cases in which racial or gender equality are at stake, religious or sexual freedom, cases in which the nature and content of political speech are questioned, cases in which the imperatives of religious communities seem irreconcilable with public institutions, cases in which the nature and extent of punishment have been debated and the question of who deserves to be punished decided, and notorious public trials in which the national self-understanding has been shaped. Our aim is to bring theory to bear, and down to earth, in each consideration (we will read Foucault’s Discipline and Punish, and also examine prisons and mass incarceration). Since this is an election year in which the constitutional framework of American democracy is being tested, the issues being raised by the January 6 committee will be much on our minds.


Social Studies 98eo. Art, Political Culture, and Civic Life

Kiku Adatto

Half course (spring term).

The seminar explores the interplay of the arts, political culture, and civic life. It will draw on studies in art, history, political philosophy, literature, sociology, and photography. Among the questions we will address are: How is historical memory constructed, and what are the competing forces that shape it? What is the significance of public apologies, and does solidarity create moral responsibilities for historical injustices? How is cultural domination exerted, and how is it resisted? In what ways does rhetoric shape politics, and what role does it play in national narratives? Why does the contest to control images loom so large in politics, the media, and in our everyday lives?


Social Studies 98lf. Globalization and the Nation State

Nicolas Prevelakis

Half course (spring term).

Despite globalization, the nation is still a major actor in today's world. This course tries to understand why this is so by examining the role that nationalism plays in peoples’ identities and the effects of globalization on nations and nation-states. It includes theoretical texts, but also case studies from the recent pandemic, the rise of populism and authoritarianism, the challenges of supranational entities such as the European Union, and the urgency of global issues such as climate change, inequality, and migration. Examples from the United States, Europe, Latin America, China, and the Middle East.


Social Studies 98mi. Migration in Theory and Practice

Nicole Newendorp

Half course (spring term).

In this course, we will examine how and why people migrate from one location to another, focusing both on the theoretical paradigms scholars use to explain migration processes as well as on the individual experiences of migrants. Topics include transnationalism, diaspora, identity formation, integration and assimilation, citizenship claims, and the feminization of migration. Ethnographic readings focus primarily on migration to the US, but also include cases from other world areas, most notably Asia.


Social Studies 98nd. Justice and Reconciliation After Mass Violence

Jonathan Hansen

Half course (spring term).

This seminar examines the problem of justice and reconciliation after mass violence: How does a nation sundered by genocide, civil war, or gross human rights violations reestablish the social trust and civic consciousness required of individual and collective flourishing? What is the proper balance between individual and collective responsibility? What is the role of trials, truth commissions, and apology in civil reconciliation? How do specific types of mass violence influence outcomes? What makes some reconciliations successful, others less so? The course engages these and other questions from historical and contemporary perspectives, exploring the legacy of mass violence going back centuries, while examining reconciliation projects across cultures, countries, and continents.


This course comprises three units: 1) a typology of mass violence (civil war, genocide, state repression, for instance) and historical responses; 2) case studies of the U.S. Civil War (and its continuing legacy), the Spanish Civil War, and the Rwandan genocide; and 3) a research and writing workshop emphasizing students own work. The goal of the course is to introduce students to the literature of mass violence from an interdisciplinary perspective (including but not limited to historical, sociological, and anthropological approaches), ultimately launching students on their own research projects.


Social Studies 98se. Race and Ethnicity in the United States

Christina Ciocca Eller

Half course (spring term).

The United States is more racially and ethnically diverse than at any point in its history. Yet racial and ethnic social categories remain persistent sources of inequality in American society. This tutorial will interrogate the relationships between race, ethnicity, and inequality, examining theoretical and empirical approaches across multiple social domains. Part I of the course will focus on the historical development and contemporary meanings of both “race” and “ethnicity.” Part II discusses the reproduction of social categories and the consequences of reproduction for inequality. Part III examines the relationship between race, ethnicity, and inequality in particular social domains, including neighborhoods, youth experiences, policing and mass incarceration, higher education, and the labor market. We will discuss the implications for public policy through each of these case studies, focusing on strategies and approaches for reducing inequality.


Social Studies 98ta. What's the Matter with Inequality? Normative and Empirical Perspectives

Glory Liu

Half course (spring term).

This course investigates the diverse ways in which we theorize, study, and talk about economic inequality today. Is inequality wrong because some people have too much, or because others have too little? Or is it wrong simply because some people have more than others? To answer these questions, this course explores prominent social science explanations of the nature, causes, and consequences of economic inequality in the United States alongside normative theories of equality and inequality. We will also investigate the theory and practice of different “solutions” to inequality such as redistribution and "predistribution", philanthropy, and universal basic income.


Social Studies 98ud. The Critical Theory of Knowledge, Technology, and Power

Bo-Mi Choi

Half course (spring term).

This tutorial explores the role and impact of science and technology on society, culture and politics from the perspective of critical theory. Building on the foundations of 20th-century critical theory by thinkers such as Benjamin, Heidegger and Foucault, the course provides an intellectual bridge to recent theoretic contributions in the field of science and technology studies (STS). Questions we’ll address along the way include: how do science and technology shape our experience and knowledge of the world and ourselves? how do they co-produce our political and social order? what impact do they have on democratic processes and on regulating human behavior? what are the legal ramifications of new technologies? and what kinds of ethical implications do we need to consider as we adopt them?


While the tutorial is largely designed as a theory course, we will also apply the theoretical components to concrete material case studies such as artificial intelligence and ethics, gender in science, privacy and big data, or racial bias in algorithmic systems. In addition to “classic” critical theory, readings are drawn from disciplines across the social sciences, including anthropology and newer fields such as AI studies. Rather than conceptualizing science and technology in Promethean terms as mere “tools” of progress, we will closely examine how they are intrinsically constitutive of the ways we experience, order and govern the world, for better or worse. The aim of this tutorial is to collaboratively arrive at an amplified social theoretical framework that enables us to critically engage and normatively evaluate scientific and technological innovations from the standpoint of social justice, democratic freedom, and human emancipation.


Social Studies 98vc. Colonialism & Postcolonialism - NEW

Sebastian Jackson

Half course (spring term).

In this course, students will examine the histories of colonialism and decolonization in the modern world. Colonialism has always been a dialectical phenomenon—an enduring struggle between colonizers and the colonized. It produced violent forms of domination and subjection, but it also created spaces and opportunities for resistance. This Junior Tutorial is particularly concerned with exploring the many ways in which colonial power was experienced by colonized people, and how it was challenged and resisted from below. This class focuses on historical processes of colonization and decolonization in the Atlantic world—in Europe, Africa, and the Americas—from approximately the sixteenth century to the late twentieth century. However, it will also engage with colonial and postcolonial politics in South Asia and Oceania. Students will critically examine painful histories of racism, chattel slavery, land expropriation, and racial capitalism, and consider how these world-historical processes have shaped the conditions for modern society.


Social Studies 98ve. Empire, Capitalism, and Global Economic Development - NEW

Jamie Martin

Half course (spring term).

This course introduces students to the historical study of the world economy by tracing the emergence of a global capitalist economy from the early modern period to the present. It looks at how capitalism first emerged, how it expanded globally, and how it has been transformed over the last five centuries. It does so by looking at the history of international trade, finance and banking, labor and slavery, industrialization, and agriculture. It considers how global capitalism developed in response to transformations in the balance of power between rival empires and nations. It also focuses on the history of global economic inequality -- and its persistence today. The course will conclude by looking at how the future of global capitalism may develop in the wake of the intertwined economic, public health, and political crises of 2020-22.


Social Studies 98vf. The Foundations of Democracy and Dictatorship - NEW

Steven Levitsky
Half course (spring term).

This course explores why some countries are democratic and others are not. It examines the origins of liberal democracy in the West, democratic breakdown in interwar Europe and Latin America in the 1960s and 1970s, the Third Wave of democratization in the late twentieth century, and the possible global democratic retreat of the early twenty-first century. The course examines democratic successes and failures in contemporary Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe/former Soviet Union, the persistence of authoritarianism in China and the Middle East, and new forms of authoritarianism emerging in countries like Russia, Hungary, Turkey, and Venezuela. Students will be introduced to alternative theories of democratization (including those focusing on economic development, class structure, culture, institutions, international diffusion, and leadership), as well as recent scholarly debates over the sources of authoritarian durability. Finally, the course looks at populism and other challenges facing established democracies (including the United States) and asks whether they are at risk of breakdown.


Social Studies 98vt. Solidarity in Theory and Action - NEW

Rosemarie Wagner

Half course (spring term).

How do you fight oppression when (a) you can’t theorize a stable essential self or group to emancipate and (b) power is totalizing and you can never really be “free” from power anyway? People with different experiences, beliefs, and commitments, are struggling, fighting, and organizing to get free from oppression and empower themselves. They fight against one another and sometimes manage to band together in their struggles. This course examines how solidarity, emancipation, and coalition can be possible in our post-foundational world, and how we bridge the gap between social theory and social action. We will learn from theoretical debates in feminist, queer, Black, democratic, radical, postcolonial, and disability studies on questions of agency, solidarity, and liberation, and will also analyze real-world case studies of coalitions.

Senior Tutorial

Social Studies 99a. Tutorial — Senior Year
Anya Bassett, Nicole Newendorp 
Full course (indivisible). 
Writing of senior honors essay. Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.
Note: Required for concentrators.

Social Studies 99b. Tutorial — Senior Year
Anya Bassett, Nicole Newendorp 
Full course (indivisible). 
Writing of senior honors essay. Students must complete both terms of this course (parts A and B) within the same academic year in order to receive credit.
Note: Required for concentrators.

Reading and Research

Social Studies 91. Supervised Reading and Research
Anya Bassett and members of the Committee 
Half course (fall term; repeated spring term). Hours to be arranged.
Individual work in Social Studies on a topic not covered by regular courses of instruction. Permission of the Director of Studies required.